Wednesday, March 25, 2020
Discourse in Othello Paper Language Is, arguably, the primary defining feature that separates humanity from the rest of the animal kingdom. It has allowed the classification of our known universe. And the subsequent formation of an abstract body of collective intelligence. Language also has the power to persuade and seduce, which has resulted in a dynamic understanding of our feeling and emotions. Due to the fundamental function of language to Interpret and understand the complexities of our own social system, it follows that ways of speaking about specific ideas and beliefs are instrumental in the formation and manipulation of ideologies in such a system. In the context of Othello, Moor of Venice, discourse around gender works to both reinforce and challenge the dominant assumptions of patriarchal society through the normalization and empowerment of primary female characters. The Elizabethan era marked an interesting period in the history of gender dynamics. Although the role of women In society was still very limited, the highly Intelligent Queen Elizabeth Inspired a spike In womens education. Gender expectations were precise: men were the breadwinners and women raised the children and maintained the household. However, the era did witness the emergence of female artists; for example, female writers were often contracted to transcribe religious works, and a painter by the name of Leviathan Terrible was even contracted by Henry VIII, Mary and Elizabeth. The intellectually liberal Renaissance movement gained momentum during this time, and as the empires female figurehead became ever more revered, the affluent members of society hired private tutors to provide education for their wives and daughters as It was still unacceptable for women to attend school or university. We will write a custom essay sample on Discourse in Othello specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Discourse in Othello specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Discourse in Othello specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Women rarely had the money to fund their own education, with the exception of lethal heiresses and the monarchy, as they were unable to enter respected professions or inherit land titles. Due to an overarching belief that women were the weaker sex, It was considered Important for them to by looked after by a man; which resulted in marriage being the unquestioned goal of all girls. Despite many depictions of abusive marriages at the time, it was expected that while the man was the head of the relationship, his role was to care for the woman. Should she need chastising, he was never to be cruel or harm her; and abuse resulted In prosecution. Its important to understand these social conditions when analyzing the position of women in Othello, as the dynamics of gender inequality are a direct result of the context in which they exist. As a result of misogynistic discourse In the play, the female characters are marginals; portrayed as uncontrollable, deceiving, dishonest, and unfaithful. The censorship of female action by men who own them is made clear by the questioning of female virtue and honesty; fathers, from hence trust not your daughters mulled By what you see them act. Othello claims that the curse of marriage Is that [men] an call these delicate creatures [theirs], and not their appetites! This language clearly positions women as innately promiscuous objects to be owned, in this case by I OFF were comparable too dogs in regards to their lack of control, however the pairing with delicate implies some form of desirability. Such language constructs women as pretty, fickle beings, which continues to reinforce their inferior position as slaves to their mans impulses. Emilie initially supports this assumption by enabling Lagos fantasies by stealing Adhesions handkerchief, claiming that that My wayward Cubans hat h a hundred times wooed me to steal it ND I nothing, but to please his fantasy. The roots of such assumptions find themselves firmly planted in The Bible, where the beautiful Eve was not only created at the whim of Adam, but her inability to resist temptation was to blame for his subsequent suffering. These misogynistic themes are echoed in Adhesions self-proclaimed divided duty to noble father and noble Moor, as well in the suggestion that Othello fall from grace is all because of Adhesions suggested inability to resist Cassias seduction. Gags intentioned accusation of her as the cunning where of Venice unjustly vilifies her, and ultimately results Othello deciding that she must die, else shell betray more men. This is supported by Dampen Callaghan writing in Women and Gender in Renaissance Tragedy that makes the point that misogynistic discourse leads, directly or indirectly, to the death of the female. The kind of language she is referring to is no more evident that in the momen ts preceding Adhesions death, when Othello refers to her as perjured woman, strumpet, where, false, a liar, and foul. The play questions the sexual morality of women right from the beginning, and the plot is centric to the assumption that one can easily be framed to make women false; which is reinforced by by Lagos accusation that women are players in your housewifely, and housewives in your beds, meaning that they are more dedicated to sexual pursuit than to the duties of the marital house. These beliefs, although shocking to modern audiences, were accepted without question at the time of production because Elizabethan ideology was saturated with patriarchal and misogynistic assumptions. It seems illogical that the women in Othello, who express themselves as virtuous, independent, and articulate despite their normalization, would put up with such extreme treatment without some sort of objection. Shakespearian works are renowned for the avocation of movements that were controversial at the time; and although Othello provides copious examples of womens submission to the dominance of patriarchal views, the female characters do express their desire for gender equality. In such times, the tone of their dialogue changes from submissive to empowered, which Just shows how remarkable the power of language is in repeating ideas and beliefs. For example, Desman demands to accompany Othello to the battleground of Cypress, claiming that its her rite of love, not duty, as a wife to accompany her husband to war. Her decisive language represents the independent personalities of the female minority at the time that objected to blatant objectification and suppression by the patriarchy. At one of the most shocking moments of the play, when Othello strikes his wife, she does not revert to self-blame as in the majority of the play, and instead defends her virtue by decisively stating, I eve not deserved this. However it is Emilie who serves as the best example of a when complaining to Ago that Othello has borrowed Desman, saying that A beggar in his drink could not have laid such terms upon his called and condemning the cogging, cozening slave who she blames for having devised this slander. This example of strong, empowered language is the first indication that she doesnt conform to the subservient woman expectation, and she continues to defend Adhesions virtue to her dying breaths; saying that she was chaste. Towards the inclusion of the play, she goes farther than any other character to subvert the dominant misogynistic discourse, and advocates for the consideration of gender equality. L do think it is their husbands faults if wives do fall she says, Let husbands know their wives have sense like them. This is the only time in the play where female characters dominate the stage for a significant about of time, free to speak without the constraints of patriarchal expectation. They challenge the cultural stereotype of women as graceful and devoid of the typically masculine traits; saying, why we have galls; and though we have some grace, yet we have some revenge. Although being vulnerable to violent temptations may not necessarily be desirable, to strip a gender of an entire human experience is degrading, and would have seriously contributed to the distorted power distribution that resulted in the unequal treatment of women in Elizabethan society. The discourse around gender in Othello, Moor of Venice works to both marginals and empower the primary female characters; which in turn presents conflicting presentations of Elizabethan society in terms of patriarchal dominance. For the majority of the play, the women of the text are excluded from the use powerful discourse, and hence are constructed as mindless conformations to the archetype of the victimizes Elizabethan woman. They are treated like objects to be owned by the dominant male characters, and are vilified as a result of unfounded, misogynistic slander. Additionally, the apparently unpredictable and uncontrollable nature of female sexuality is seen to undermine male authority, eliciting further discrimination. Although attempts are made by women to assert their rights as equals through the adoption of a more powerful discourse, it is either ignored, or only done in an exclusively female environment; which does nothing to challenge either their normalization or the assumptions of patriarchal dominance. As a modern audience, we can appreciate this injustice; however such a suggestion was ground breaking in Shakespearean time. As such, it is evident that the treatment of gender bias in Othello establishes the play as typical the Elizabethan era, but also revolutionary in its suggestion that society should function in any other way.
Friday, March 6, 2020
Police Brutality Essays - Police Brutality In The United States Police Brutality Racism and police brutality goes hand in hand, and causes a major concern in today's society, in the United States. On March 3, 1991 in California, Rodney King an African American, was pulled over after a high-speed chase, and after stopping was beaten by four white police officers (Worsnop 635). Tracy Brock also an African American was arrested in Manhattan in November of 1986. An officer smashed his head through a plate glass window, when Brock refused to go into the officers lunchroom (Police Brutality and Excessive Force in the New York City Police Department 14). Ki Tae Kim a Korean grocer was assaulted when he was accused of passing a counterfeit bill. He was punched in the face, his head was slammed into the counter, and the officer also subjected him to racial slurs (Police Brutality and Excessive Force in the New York City Police Department 17). Marcos Maldonado a Latino grocer was mistaken for a suspect after an armed robbery to his store. He was handcuffed, thrown to the f loor, repeatedly kicked, and beaten with the officers nightstick (Police Brutality and Excessive Force in the New York City Police Department 17). Abner Louima a Haitian immigrant was arrested outside a dance club in Brooklyn, and was brutally assaulted when he arrived at the police station. Volpe a long time police officer was accused of shoving a plunger into Louima's rectum so far that his bladder and intestines were lacerated. Then he shoved the plunger into Louima's mouth and broke his teeth (Steinback 8). These are just a few examples of the people who were affected of police brutality, and racism. There are five stages through which force can progress and lead to brutality: Verbal persuasion, unarmed physical force, force using non-lethal weapons, force using impact weapons and deadly force, which most of the officers mentioned before fell into this stage. The deadly force stage is only to be used only when an officers life or another persons life is in danger. The deadly for ce stage should be terminated, if not made illegal in the United States. By having the deadly force stage, by law you are permitting someone to commit a murder, and basically saying that it is just. In many of the cases stated before these guidelines were violated, and stronger action was used on the citizen than necessary. The officers who were accused in these cases were charged with only minor offenses, and some were charged with nothing at all. Stronger action should have been enforced on the police officers that committed these crimes. All of these victims mentioned are from minority groups, and were harmed by white New York City police officers. In less than four years fifty -five people have died while in being in police custody, in the New York City Police Department (Police Brutality and Excessive Force in the New York City Police Department 8). This number compared to earlier statistics seems to be low, but still seems extremely high, for the rules and regulations the offi cers are supposed to be following. Should the Federal Government increase the punishment on law enforcement officials who brutally hurt citizens that are in custody, or under arrest? Many law enforcement officials appear to have a tough exterior towards crime, but are very sensitive to crime on the inside. Police officers build up negative feelings towards certain races, sexes, or religions. Officers tend to get the impression that if one or a few people treat them with disrespect, than other people of that same sex, race, or religion will treat the officer in the same way. It is has proven that less than five percent of all cops are the bad element, but if they other ninety five percent stand around and do nothing, then that is where the real problem lies (Worsnop 636). Another cause of police brutality and misconduct is the amount of stress that is put upon the law enforcement official. According to Robert Scully who is the president of the National Association of Police Organizations in Detroit, There obviously has to be some kind of stress factor at work in brutality cases because stress is an inherent part of policing.(Worsnop 636). A survey
Wednesday, February 19, 2020
National Curriulum - Essay Example The strategy required that students be given one hour of literacy classes on a daily basis. In other words, they were supposed to engage in reading and writing classed at any one time. (The BBC, 2009) While the latter strategy may seem like a good thing, there are certain concerns that have been raised about this issue with regard to the curriculum and lesson planning issues. However, before looking into some of these arguments it is essential to understand that there have been some positive outcomes in this regard. First of all, the literacy national strategy has led to better teaching of literacy skills through incorporation into the curriculum. Many experts argue that this may be one of the most important skills to be learnt from school by students. Additionally, the process of balancing the national curriculum with the national strategy is that it necessitated a massive training program for teachers consequently, leading to better knowledge with regard to the process of reading and writing. Through the national literacy strategy, there was a need to change the curriculum so as to incorporate new teaching aspects. For example, it has been found that aspects such as grammar and phonics (which had been previously left out) are now being put into consideration. It should also be noted that through the process of balancing the national curriculum with the national strategy, there have been greater amounts of resources that have been dedicated to primary education in the United Kingdom. In fact, experts assert that numerous schools within the region have restored their libraries and now boast of plenty of books which are now at teachers' and children's disposal. On top of the latter, there are many situations in which teachers have had to include activities and games in the lesson planning process thus making education more colourful and interesting for children. (DFES, 2006) However, it is not just these positive outcomes that have emanated from the latter strategy. In fact, it is a proven fact that whenever there is a government led project within the education sector, certain unintended consequences must emanate from it. For instance it is a big challenge for teachers to balance between three of the following aspects School league tables Targets Tests In the process of balancing between the national curriculum and national strategies, teachers have found that most of their time and attention has been driven towards the issue of tests instead of other learning issues. This matter is further compounded by the fact that there are high stakes in those tests. Most of the time, parents want to find out how their children performed and they usually use this issue as a criterion for success. In the end, the individual who suffers is the child who finds that their mind must always be on the tests. Learning then becomes a boring process for them. It can therefore be asserted that the aims for which these two aspects i.e. the national curriculum and the national strategy were intended in accomplishing actually end being sidelined. (Department for Schools, children and families, 2008) Most of the time, curriculum implementation needs to be done in such a manner that it allows for greater flexibility in the teaching and the learning process. However, the literacy national strategy eliminated this aspect through its rigorous and one size fits all strategy. The taskforce appointed to implement this aspect
Tuesday, February 4, 2020
Growth and Business Cycles - Essay Example With inventory control, we are speaking about the promising factor that inventories do propagate and amplify other fluctuations. On the other hand, on the discussion of growth of services, we are instead speaking in regards to the significant fact that the decline of manufacturing and the rise of services should be helping to reduce volatility, this being mainly because the demand for services is usually more stable than demand for manufacturers. The factor of better governments is highly relevant to this positive point of view as well, in that most central banks have learned to manage the economy so well that "it is sometimes argued, that they have more or less abolished the cycle." (The Economist, London, Oct 23, 1999, Anonymous). Globalization is another crucial factor, and at least at first sense seems to make perfect sense and fit properly into the optimist's point of view. This is because increasing integration with the global economy reduces the dependence of the American economy on certain domestic demand, and "it also opens new channels of supply, reducing inflationary pressures on costs and wages." (The Economist, London, Oct 23, 1999, Anonymous). However, even with an optimistic p
Monday, January 27, 2020
Fe-AZT and Pd-AZT Synthesis and Effects Synthesis and Effects of Fe-AZT and Pd-AZT on Viability of Human Hepatocytes and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells Submitted by: Anna Harutyunyan Introduction Cancer is one of the major causes of mortality in the world. In 2015, according to the National Cancer Institute, over 1.6 million new cases of cancer were reported in the United States. The estimated cancer deaths for the year of 2015 were over 500,000. According to the National Cancer Institute projections, in 2016 an estimated 1.7 million new cases of cancer were diagnosed in the United States and 595,690 people will die from the disease (National Cancer Institute). Although new cancer treatments and therapies are designed and implemented every year, cancer is still the number two cause of mortality in the United States, therefore developing and testing new effective anticancer agents is crucial. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the deadliest forms of cancers (Venook et al., 2010). The overall 5-year survival rate of HCC is less than 17%, making HCC the fastest rising cause of cancer related death in the United States (American Cancer Society 2016; Mittal and El-Serag, 2013). The annual age-adjusted incidence rates of HCC increased from 1.4 per 100,000 individuals in 1975-77 to 4.8 per 100,000 in 2005-07. An estimated 39,230 new cases of liver cancer (including intrahepatic bile duct cancers) were expected to occur in the US during 2016, approximately three-fourths of which would be hepatocellular carcinoma. An estimated 27,170 liver cancer deaths were expected in 2016 (American Cancer Society 2016). In 80-90% cases HHC occurs with and after cirrhosis. HCCs major risk factors are Hepatitis B and C viruses, cirrhosis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), overconsumption of alcohol and exposure to other carcinogenic substances (Mittal and El-Serag, 2013). Liver ca ncer is the sixth most common neoplasm and the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths, accounting for approximately 600,000 deaths annually (Venook et al., 2010). Because of early metastasis and progression, HCCs treatment is difficult, and traditional chemotherapy has shown limited success (Sabokrough et al, 2014). A research study published in 2015 suggested that an organometallic complex of platinum (II) azidothymidine (Pt (II)-AZT) has an antitumor effect on rat hepatocellular carcinoma cells. It was shown that this complex was significantly more effective in tumor suppression than the AZT without platinum (Sabokrough et al., 2014). Several organometallic complexes of AZT (with Zinc, Cobalt, Copper and Iron) were synthesized and characterized previously. The Iron complex of AZT (Fe-AZT) was shown to be the most stable (Shirvastav et al.) and have antimicrobial activity against 4 groups of bacteria. Electron rich ligands like AZT effectively bind and interact with metal ions producing metallodrugs which offer promising therapeutic application in terms of combating the drug-resistant strains of pathogens. It is also logical that a metal ion can influence the biological activity and therapeutic efficacy of the bio-molecule they bind (Shirvastav et al.) Thus it is useful to investigate the effect of a metal ion on the efficacy and mode of action of AZT in suppressing malignant cells and inducing apoptosis. To date, no research has been published regarding synthesis of Pd-AZT the inhibitory effect of both Fe-AZT and Pd-AZT on malignant cells. The aim of this research project is to synthesize Fe-AZT and Pd-AZT, confirm their structure and molecular mass and test their effects on viability of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and normal human hepatocytes. Background Normal cell cycle In order to understand the biology of cancer it is crucial to understand the cell cycle of normal cells and cancerous cells. All cells in a given organism are under strict control of multiple regulatory agents, such as RB or p53 that control cell growth and keep the proliferative index stable. If there is a need for the cell to divide, the proliferative genes will turn on, or the suppressor genes that keep proliferation from occurring will be shut down, which will result in cell division (Hardin et al., 2014). The normal cell cycle consists of the following phases: G1, S, G2, M. During the G1 phase duplication of organelles, membrane systems and other important components happens. There is an important checkpoint at the end of this phase referred to as the restriction checkpoint, which verifies that DNA synthesis was successful and no errors have been detected. Next is the S phase during which the cell duplicates each chromosome. During the G2 the rest of the components that were not synthesized in the G1 phase are synthesized. A checkpoint after this phase makes sure the cell is ready to divide, and no errors in chromosome duplication were made. Mitosis is the next phase, when the cell physically divides (cytokinesis) making two identical daughter cells. A checkpoint during this phase checks if both of the daughter cells received the correct number of chromosomes. After division, the cell may remain in its silent G0 phase, when it does not divide, but continues to function. If any errors are detected on any of the checkpoints, the cell cycle is put on hold and the cell will undergo apoptosis. This process is governed my many enzymes and complexes, and theoretically, malfunction of any of these enzymes may result in uncontrolled cell division/proliferation. This can be the onset of carcinogenesis. Figure 1. The cell cycle phases with their checkpoints. Cancer cell cycle It is important to note that the normal cell cycle is under control of thousands of regulatory elements that are coded for by different genes. If mutations occur in the genes that code for the key elements keeping cell proliferation at bay, one level of control over the cell cycle is lost. There are cell signaling mechanisms through which immune cells detect faulty cells, send them death signals and the faulty cell undergoes apoptosis. It takes more than one mutation for a normal cell to start behaving like a cancer cell. Usually it is either the loss of the function of suppressor genes, or overexpression of proliferative genes that result in uncontrolled cell proliferation. When the cell becomes malignant, it loses the ability to respond to death signals, thus does not undergo apoptosis. The malignant cell cycle is slower than the normal cell cycle, however, since the cancer cells keep dividing and do not die, their number grows exponentially resulting in tumors (Weinberg, 2014). There is distinct cytological difference between normal and cancer cells (Figure 2). A normal cell has a smaller, regularly shaped nucleus, a low nucleus/cytoplasm ratio, is well differentiated and has well defined borders. Cancer cells have larger, irregularly shaped nucleus, high nucleus/cy toplasm ratio, are less differentiated and have irregular borders. In contract with normal cells that adhere to each other, cancer cells are less adhesive and break away from each other (Weinberg, 2014). Figure 2. The comparison of the cytology of normal cells and cancer cells. Azidothymidine (AZT), Fe(III)AZT, Pd(II)AZT Azidothymidine (AZT, Zidovudine) is a thymidine derivative in which the 3-hydroxy group is replaced by an azido group (Figure 3). It has been shown to have antitumor effects on different animal carcinoma cells both in vitro and in vivo through inhibition of telomerase activity and by causing cell cycle arrest (Gomez et al., 2012; Hadizadeh et al., 2014, Cooper and Lovett, 2011; Matteucci et al., 2015). Figure 3. Thymidine (left), Azidothymidine (right). Since cancer cells have higher proliferation rate than normal cells, their thymidine turnover rate is higher, which could contribute to their increased sensitivity to AZT. Several studies conducted by Fang et al., have shown that a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) is significantly more sensitive to AZT toxicity as compared to the normal hepatocyte (THLE2) sensitivity (Fang et al., 2014; Fang and Beland, 2009). The current hypothesis on how AZT affects the cell suggests that AZT is phosphorylated intracellularly yielding AZT-triphosphate and AZT-monophosphate. The AZT-monophosphate can be incorporated into the DNA structure instead of thymidine due to its similar molecular structure and shape. However, in contrast with thymidine, AZT lacks the 3 hydroxyl group which is the group that forms phosphodiester bonds between nucleotides in the DNA backbone structure. This means, wherever the AZT phosphate is incorporated in one of the DNA strands during DNA replication, the elongat ion of that strand halts (Figure 4). This is one of the mechanisms through which AZT causes damage to DNA (Fang et al, 2014). The commercial name of AZT is Zidovudine, and it is the basis of AIDS treatments. AZT blocks the replication of HIV-1 virus by competitively inhibiting the viral reverse transcriptase (RT). In other words, HIV RT prefers AZT to normal nucleotides. As described above, AZT is phosphorylated to AZT-triphosphate and is incorporated into viral DNA, halting nucleotide chain elongation. It is also known that AZT-triphosphate can be incorporated into eukaryotic DNA, although its affinity for DNA polymerases is lower than that for RT (Gomez et al, 2012). It was shown that Pt(II)-AZT is more effective in suppressing cancer cells than AZT, thus it has been suggested that having a transition metal bound to the central nitrogen atom of the azido group increases the complexs affinity for G-C and A-T base pairs and the P-backbone of DNA (Das and Pitre, 2007; Sabokrouh et al, 2015). Materials and Methods Fe-AZT and Pd-AZT synthesis To carry out the synthesis of Pd and Fe complexes, solid AZT and a standard ion solution of each metal (iron nitrate nonahydrate (Fe(NO3)3ÃâÃ ·9H2O and palladium chloride (PdCl2)) will be purchased from Sigma Aldrich (St. Louis, MO). Synthesis will be performed according to the protocol by Das and Pitre (2007). A 1:1 molar ratio of aqueous solution of AZT and metal ion will be refluxed for 3 hours. The volume of the reaction mixture will be reduced by 75% in order for the complex to precipitate. The solid product will be vacuum filtered, washed twice with ice-cold water, recrystallized and air-dried overnight. Infrared absorbance spectra will recorded for the AZT, Fe-AZT and Pd-AZT complexes. In the experiment conducted by Das and Pitre (2007) the comparison of IR spectra of pure AZT and its complex with Fe, the spectrum indicated a shift in bands from 2170 to 2150 cm-1 due to complexation through N atom of azido group. A similar band shift in the IR spectrum of Fe-AZT and Pd-AZT is expected. A Matrix Assisted Laser Ioniation/Distortion Time-of-Flight (MALDI TOF) mass spectrometry analysis will be performed for the Fe-AZT and Pd-AZT to determine the molar mass and the stoichiometry of the complexes. The matrix for analysis will be composed of 1:1 saturated Anthranilic Acid and Nicotinic Acid (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO). The samples and matrix will be dissolved in 45% acetonitrile: 55% water (van Kampen et al., 2004). Cell cultures HepG2, THLE2. Liver carcinoma cell line HepG2 and normal human liver cell line THLE2 will be obtained from American Type Culture Collection (Manassas, VA). The standard protocol recommended by ATCC will be used for establishing and maintaining hepatic cell lines. The cell lines will be plated at a density of 5 x 103 cells/cm2. HepG2 cells will be cultured in DMEM with 10% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics (penn/strep). THLE2 cells will be cultured in LHC-8 medium with 70ng/ml phosphoethanolamine, 5ng/ml epidermal growth factor, 10% fetal bovine serum and antibiotics (Fang et al., 2009). After ensuring sufficient cell growth and several passages of each cell line, the two cell lines will be divided into 4 groups each: control (no treatment) and treated with each drug: AZT, Fe-AZT and Pd-AZT (Table 1). Table 1. The experimental setup of the control and experimental groups of cells. Control 1 (C1) THLE2 cell line (no treatment) Control 2 (C2) HepG2 cell line (no treatment) Experimental 1 (E1) THLE2 cell line+AZT Experimental 2 (E2) HepG2 cell line+AZT Experimental 3 (E3) THLE2 cell line+Fe-AZT Experimental 4 (E4) HepG2 cell line+Fe-AZT Experimental 5 (E5) THLE2 cell line+Pd-AZT Experimental 6 (E6) HepG2 cell line+Pd-AZT The cells in the treated groups will be further categorized by the concentrations of the drug. HepG2 cells will be incubated with 2, 20 or 100 ÃâÃ µM aqueous solution of AZT, Fe-AZT or Pd-AZT for 14 days. THLE2 cells will be incubated with 50, 500 or 2500 ÃâÃ µM aqueous solution of AZT, Fe-AZT or Pd-AZT for 14 days. Each group of cells will be seeded at 5 x 103 cells/cm2 density in 6-well plates. The cells will be passaged weekly during the two-week treatment period. The dosage and incubation time were chosen based on a similar study (Fang et al., 2013; Matteucci et al., 2015; Sabokrouh et al., 2015). Cell viability assay After 14-day treatment period, 103 106 cells from each group will be seeded in a 96-well plate, incubated for 4 hours, and treated with MTT reagent, followed by a 8-12 hours incubation at 37ÃâÃ °C. After the incubation with MTT, when the cells have metabolized the yellow tetrazolium dye (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) to purple formazan, the cells will be treated by a detergent to release the formazan into the solution, and the absorbance will be measured at 570nm using an ELIZA reader. The number of metabolically active cells will be determined using a previously made calibration curve. The statistical differences will be calculated using a Two-Way ANOVA and Tukeys Post-Hoc Test. Anticipated outcomes. The expected mass-to-charge ratio from mass spectrometry analysis of Fe-AZT complex is 323.1, that of Pd-AZT is 373.6. Based on the published literature and the adopted hypothesis, all three drugs are expected to decrease cell viability. The concentration of either drug should have positive correlation with decrease in cell viability. Based on previous observations, it is expected that the HepG2 cells will be significantly more sensitive to both complexes, thus will be significantly less viable after the treatment compared to the THLE-2 cells. Study Participants and Timeline Anna Harutyunyan is the primary author of this study. She is currently a senior biology and chemistry major at Wilson College. This project will serve as Annas senior research project. She will conduct the research and present the results with the supervision of her advisors Dr. Deborah S. Austin (Sponsoring PAS member) and Dr. M. Dana Harriger (PAS Member). The research study began in September 2016 and will be completed by April 2017. Annas research findings will be analyzed and written as her senior thesis. Anna will also present her findings at the 2017 Pennsylvania Academy of Science meeting and at the Wilson College research colloquium. Budget Item Price MTT Assay Kit (ThermoFisher) $235.00 Zidovudine (Sigma) $124.00 LHC-8 medium (Gibco) $140.00 Total $499.00 Facilities and Equipment The MALDI TOF mass spectrophotometer will be provided by Pennsylvania State College of Medicine Mass Spectrometry Facility under supervision of Bruce Stanley, PhD. All materials, other instruments, and equipment not listed, including cell culture media and supplies, will be provided by the Department of Physical and Life Science of Wilson College. References Ã Ã American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts Figures 2016. Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2016. Bilsland AE, Stevenson K, Liu Y, Hoare S, Cairney CJ, Roffey J, et al. (2014) Mathematical Model of a Telomerase Transcriptional Regulatory Network Developed by Cell-Based Screening: Analysis of Inhibitor Effects and Telomerase Expression Mechanisms. PLoS Comput Biol 10(2): e1003448. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.1003448 BIOL2060 Cell Cycle [Photograph found in Department of Biology Memorial University of Newfoundland]. (2015). In Hardin Bertoni (Authors). Retrieved March 30, 2016, from http://www.mun.ca/biology/desmid/brian/BIOL2060/BIOL2060-19/CB19.html Chen, Yi-Bin. Liver Cancer Hepatocellular Carcinoma: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. U.S National Library of Medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 1 Aug. 2015. Web. 10 Apr. 2016. Cooper, D. L., Lovett, S. T. (2011). Toxicity and tolerance mechanisms for azidothymidine, a replication gap-promoting agent, in Escherichia coli. DNA Repair, 10(3), 260-270. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.dnarep.2010.11.007 Das, R., Pitre, K. S. (september 2007). Bioinorganic studies on Fe (II)- zidovudine (azt) complex. Indian Journal of Chemical Technology, 14, 526-528. Retrieved February 20, 2016. Fang, J.-L., Beland, F. A. (2009). Long-Term Exposure to Zidovudine Delays Cell Cycle Progression, Induces Apoptosis, and Decreases Telomerase Activity in Human Hepatocytes. Toxicological Sciences, 111(1), 120-130. http://doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfp136 Fang, J., Han, T., Wu, Q., Beland, F., Chang, C., Guo, L., Fuscoe, J. (2014). Differential gene expression in human hepatocyte cell lines exposed to the antiretroviral agent zidovudine. Archives Of Toxicology, 88(3), 609-623. doi:10.1007/s00204-013-1169-3 Gomez, D. E., Armando, R. G., Alonso, D. F. (2012). AZT as a telomerase inhibitor. Frontiers in Oncology, 2, 113th ser. Retrieved March 11, 2016, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3434370/ Hadizadeh, S., Najafzadeh, N., Mazani, M., Amani, M., Mansouri-Torshizi, H., Niapour, A. (2014). 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Saturday, January 18, 2020
What is e-BayÃ¢â¬â¢s core competency? How does it relate to its chosen strategy? e-BayÃ¢â¬â¢s competencies lie in its software, which allows people to trade with little supervision. It also has competencies in dispute resolution, an automated item listing service, an online financial service and a communications platform. The integration of these allow e-Bay to have a more efficient and effective trading tool used and policed by the buyers and sellers in the site. What are the implications to the challenges identified in the case regarding e-BayÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy today and the future? The challenge on translation software has the least amount of impact considering that even the users of the site are content with Ã¢â¬Å"pretty good.Ã¢â¬ An improvement in this area though, would make the service more reliable. Government regulation challenges are perhaps one of the most difficult. With new laws constantly passed in countries, some laws that touch on trade could prove a hindrance to e-BayÃ¢â¬â¢s expansion and could restrict their operations. Unless the world becomes more open to the flow of goods, then e-Bay would constantly face problems. The digital divide is a less serious problem. With technology catching up to many countries and becoming more available and cheaper, it is only a matter of time before the internet becomes available to poor communities. Cultural attributes is one of the most problematic. Since beliefs take so much time to shape and that reactions are unpredictable, it is important for e-Bay to be able to make their strategies localized and adapt it to the current system. Finally, international expansion is an unpredictable challenge, but could prove successful if their users continue to support and trust the company for their trading needs. Which candidate should the committee nominate for the assignment? Why? The first choice would be Brett Harrison because of his experience in running line activities and supervisory staff and being rated as an excellent worker. More importantly, he has knowledge about the country which is one of the most important things in running the operations of the company there. If he doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t agree because of familial considerations, then, Ravi Desai should take his place, not only because of his knowledge of the country but also because he has experience in handling large operations. Should all the candidates receive the same compensation package? If not, which factors influence each package? The candidates should all receive the same principle in their compensation package: a common basic salary and a bonus dependent on their performance and contributions to the company.
Friday, January 10, 2020
Give me your pardon, sir. IÃ¢â¬â¢ve done you wrong. But pardon Ã¢â¬â¢t, as you are a gentleman. Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦ That I have shot mine arrow oÃ¢â¬â¢er the house And hurt my brother. Since Hamlet somehow knows this fencing fight is not only a simple competition between him and Laertes, Hamlet understands that why Laertes needs to fight with him, which because Hamlet killed Polonius, who is Laertes` father, by accidentally. Ã¢â¬Å"I here proclaim was madness.Ã¢â¬ In terms of anagorisis, Hamlet tells Laertes that the murder was not done by Hamlet`s consciousness, but rather by his madness. In addition, this is the first time in the whole play since Hamlet knows the truth from the ghost and he acts straight, Hamlet convince that he is mad and acts stupidly (killed Polonius) consequently. Hamlet hopes that Laertes can understand it is not Hamlet`s fault or guilty of killing Polonius and removes himself from the responsibility. Ã¢â¬Å"IfÃ¢â¬â¢t be so, Hamlet is of the faction that is wronged.Ã¢â¬ In terms of metaphor/personification, Hamlet indicates that he is the victim of his mental illness so that he was controlled by it and killed Polonius. Ã¢â¬Å"His mad ness is poor HamletÃ¢â¬â¢s enemy.Ã¢â¬ In terms of personification/analogy, for Hamlet, he thinks he is not the one who should be blamed or punished rather his madness should be blamed as Hamlet`s enemy. Ã¢â¬Å"Let my disclaiming from a purposed evil Free me so far in your most generous thoughts That I have shot mine arrow oÃ¢â¬â¢er the house And hurt my brother.Ã¢â¬ In terms of analogy, Hamlet hints at Polonius` spying in Gertrude`s closet when Hamlet killed him by using Ã¢â¬Å"a purposed evilÃ¢â¬ and describes Polonius was accidental killed by him by using Ã¢â¬Å"I have shot mine arrow oÃ¢â¬â¢er the house And hurt my brotherÃ¢â¬ , which Ã¢â¬Å"the houseÃ¢â¬ means Gertrude`s closet. Originally, Hamlet thought the guy who hid behind the curtain was Claudius, and Hamlet promised that if Claudius has done something badly, he must kill Claudius. However, he did not know the guy behind the curtain was Polonius instead of Claudius. Plus his madness, he killed Polonius immediately by mistake, which it is the same asÃ shoots a narrow and accidentally hurts Laertes (because Polonius died). Overall, in this soliloquy, Hamlet basically apologizes for how he has hurt Laertes, but agrees to the fight anyway because he is using it as his reason to murder Claudius to get his revenge.